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The result was a theocratic regime of enforced, austere morality.Calvin’s Geneva became a hotbed for Protestant exiles, and his doctrines quickly spread to Scotland, France, Transylvania and the Low Countries, where Dutch Calvinism became a religious and economic force for the next 400 years.The Swiss Reformation began in 1519 with the sermons of Ulrich Zwingli, whose teachings largely paralleled Luther’s.In 1541 John Calvin, a French Protestant who had spent the previous decade in exile writing his “Institutes of the Christian Religion,” was invited to settle in Geneva and put his Reformed doctrine—which stressed God’s power and humanity’s predestined fate—into practice.Henry dissolved England’s monasteries to confiscate their wealth and worked to place the Bible in the hands of the people.Beginning in 1536, every parish was required to have a copy.
The Council of Trent, which met off and on from 1545 through 1563, articulated the Church’s answer to the problems that triggered the Reformation and to the reformers themselves.
When German peasants, inspired in part by Luther’s empowering “priesthood of all believers,” revolted in 1524, Luther sided with Germany’s princes.
By the Reformation’s end, Lutheranism had become the state religion throughout much of Germany, Scandinavia and the Baltics.
Northern Europe’s new religious and political freedoms came at a great cost, with decades of rebellions, wars and bloody persecutions.
The Thirty Years’ War alone may have cost Germany 40 percent of its population.But researchers have looked into the phenomenon, after other technology-related disorders such as “nomophobia” or the phobia of not having a mobile phone to hand, have been studied.